Memory is broken down into two types: short term and long term.
Short-term memory, also known as working memory, stores information that you need to remember in the following seconds, minutes or hours. An example would be a telephone message that you are given and must remember until you pass it on.
Long-term memory stores information that your brain retains because it is important to you. Basic information remembered includes names of family and friends, your address, as well as information on how to do certain activities and tasks. Long-term memory can be further divided into explicit, implicit and semantic memory.
- Explicit memories are facts that you made a conscious effort to learn and that you can remember at will, for example, the names of state capitals.
- Implicit memory is information you draw on automatically in order to perform actions such as driving a car or riding a bicycle.
- Semantic memories are facts that are so deeply ingrained they require no effort to recall. An example would be the months of the year.
There are large age-related differences with explicit memory, but age has little or no effect on implicit or semantic memory.