diabetes (dy-uh-BEE-teez) insipidus (in-SIP-ih-dus):
A condition characterized by frequent and heavy urination, excessive thirst, and an overall feeling of weakness. This condition may be caused by a defect in the pituitary gland or in the kidney. In diabetes insipidus, blood sugar levels are normal. (See also nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.)
diabetes (dy-uh-BEE-teez) mellitus (MELL-ih-tus):
A condition characterized by high blood sugar resulting from the body's inability to use sugar (glucose) efficiently. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is not able to make enough insulin; in type 2 diabetes, the body is resistant to the effects of available insulin.
A cleansing liquid used in the two major forms of dialysis--hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
The process of cleaning wastes from the blood artificially. This job is normally done by the kidneys. If the kidneys fail, the blood must be cleaned artificially with special equipment. The two major forms of dialysis are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
- hemodialysis (HEE-moh-dy-AL-ih-sis):
The use of a machine to clean wastes from the blood after the kidneys have failed. The blood travels through tubes to a dialyzer, which removes wastes and extra fluid. The cleaned blood then flows through another set of tubes back into the body.
- peritoneal (PEH-rih-tuh-NEE-ul) dialysis:
Cleaning the blood by using the lining of the belly (abdomen) as a filter. A cleansing solution, called dialysate, is drained from a bag into the belly. Fluids and wastes flow through the lining of the belly and remain "trapped" in the dialysate. The dialysate is then drained from the belly, removing the extra fluids and wastes from the body. There are three types of peritoneal dialysis:
- continuous ambulatory (AM-byoo-luh-TOH-ree) peritoneal dialysis (CAPD): The most common type of peritoneal dialysis. It needs no machine. With CAPD, the blood is always being cleaned. The dialysate passes from a plastic bag through the catheter and into the abdomen. The dialysate stays in the abdomen with the catheter sealed. After several hours, the person using CAPD drains the solution back into a disposable bag. Then the person refills the abdomen with fresh solution through the same catheter, to begin the cleaning process again.
- continuous cyclic (SYKE-lik or SIK-lik) peritoneal dialysis (CCPD): A form of peritoneal dialysis that uses a machine. This machine automatically fills and drains the dialysate from the abdomen. A typical CCPD schedule involves three to five exchanges during the night while the person sleeps. During the day, the person using CCPD performs one exchange with a dwell time that lasts the entire day.
- nocturnal (nok-TURN-ul) intermittent (IN-ter-MIT-unt) peritoneal dialysis (NIPD): A machine-aided form of peritoneal dialysis. NIPD differs from CCPD in that six or more exchanges take place during the night, and the NIPD patient does not perform an exchange during the day.
A part of the hemodialysis machine. (See hemodialysis under dialysis.) The dialyzer has two sections separated by a membrane. One section holds dialysate. The other holds the patient's blood.
In peritoneal dialysis, the amount of time a bag of dialysate remains in the patient's abdominal cavity during an exchange.
Swelling caused by too much fluid in the body.
Chemicals in the body fluids that result from the breakdown of salts, including sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride. The kidneys control the amount of electrolytes in the body. When the kidneys fail, electrolytes get out of balance, causing potentially serious health problems. Dialysis can correct this problem.
end-stage renal (REE-nul) disease (ESRD):
Total chronic kidney failure. When the kidneys fail, the body retains fluid and harmful wastes build up. A person with ESRD needs treatment to replace the work of the failed kidneys.
A hormone made by the kidneys to help form red blood cells. Lack of this hormone may lead to anemia.
end-stage renal disease.
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.
A cycle in peritoneal dialysis in which the patient fills the abdominal cavity with dialysate, carries it for a specified dwell time, and then empties the dialysate from the abdomen in preparation for a fresh bag of dialysate.
extracorporeal (EKS-truh-kor-POR-ee-ul) shockwave lithotripsy (LITH-oh-TRIP-see) (ESWL):
A nonsurgical procedure using shock waves to break up kidney stones.