While it seems nearly impossible to keep an eye on our children every second of every day, there are things we can do to keep them as safe as possible. Perhaps you have heard the expression, "there's no such thing as an accident." In fact, safety experts no longer use the term "accident" (a random event that cannot be prevented), but rather talk about "unintentional injuries," which usually can be prevented.
Did you know that injuries are the most common cause of death during childhood and adolescence beyond the first few months of life? Most of these involve motor vehicles, drowning, fires and burns, choking, bicycles or poisoning.
Here are some ways to help prevent many of these injuries:
- Put your child in an age-appropriate car seat that is correctly installed in the back seat, for every ride, no matter how short. Older kids and adults must always wear their seat belts, too.
- Teach your child water safety and never let your child swim alone.
- Put smoke detectors on every floor of your home and change the batteries at least every six months.
- Set your water heater no higher than 120 degrees.
- Watch young children closely when they are eating and do not serve them foods that commonly cause choking, such as hot dogs, nuts, hard candies and whole grapes.
- Wear a helmet when riding a bike (and other protective gear for other sports).
- Keep medicines and poisons locked up and out of the reach of children.
- Make sure your children get enough sleep. Not surprisingly, children (and adults) who are well-rested are less likely to get hurt. They also tend to do better in school and usually are in better moods. Although each child is unique, generally the younger a child is, the more sleep he needs. For example, a 2-year-old needs about 12 hours each day, while a 10-year-old requires about 10 hours. Even teens need nine hours each day. Tired teens are responsible for many sleep-related auto accidents each year.
- Make sure your children get enough to eat and drink. Many children have a hard time paying attention or are short-tempered when they are hungry or thirsty, putting them at increased risk of injuries due to carelessness. For example, poisonings in children are most common at mealtimes, when parents are busy preparing meals and children are more likely to grab at things and put them in their mouths because they are hungry or thirsty. Most kids need three meals and at least two healthy snacks each day! Remember to pack snacks and water whenever you leave the house.
- Know what to do in case of emergency. Despite our best efforts, injuries do happen and it is important to have a plan for handling them. Post emergency numbers near a phone where you can get them quickly, including your child's doctor, the local hospital, and the National Poison Control number (1-800-222-1222). Take classes in CPR and basic first aid; keep a first-aid kit in your home. When traveling, be sure to take your insurance cards and any important medical information (including immunizations) and know the location of the nearest emergency facility.
Henry H. Bernstein, D.O., is a senior lecturer in Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. In addition, he is chief of General Academic Pediatrics at Children's Hospital at Dartmouth and professor of pediatrics at Dartmouth Medical School. He is the former associate chief of General Pediatrics and director of Primary Care at Children's Hospital Boston.