Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Chrome 2001
.
Aetna Intelihealth InteliHealth Aetna Intelihealth Aetna Intelihealth
 
.
. .
Harvard Medical School
.
Chrome 2001
Chrome 2001
.

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Nutrition
325
Vitamins And Minerals: A to Z Glossary
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
htmFatSol
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
230636
Johns Hopkins
2008-10-16
t
InteliHealth Medical Content
2010-10-16

Reviewed by the Faculty of Harvard Medical School

. .
. .

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin Glossary | Vitamin A | Vitamin D | Vitamin E | Vitamin K

Vitamin A
Vitamin A
Good to know: Also called retinol or retinoic acid. Humans convert carotenes from plant foods into vitamin A in the body.
Recommendations: Men ages 11-51+, 1,500 micrograms RE/day (equivalent to about 5,000 IU)

Women ages 11-51+, 1,200 micrograms RE/day (equivalent to about 4,000 IU)

(RE=retinol equivalent, the standard measure for vitamin A)

Benefits: Important for good vision, especially at night. Also affects immunity, reproduction, and the growth and maintenance of cells of the skin, gastrointestinal tract and other mucus membranes.
Food sources: Fortified milk, eggs, liver, cheese, leafy green vegetables (such as spinach, kale, turnip greens, collards and Romaine lettuce), broccoli, dark orange fruits and vegetables (such as apricots, carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, papaya, mango and cantaloupe), red bell pepper.
Day's supply in: ½ cup sweet potatoes (2,800 mcg), OR one carrot (2,000 mcg), OR 1 oz fortified cornflakes (635 mcg) PLUS 1 cup milk (150 mcg) PLUS 1 cup raw spinach (375 mcg)
Watch out: Taking high-dose supplements (daily dose over 15,000 micrograms RE, or about 75,000 IU) can cause toxicity, which can result in bone fractures; joint pain; headaches; skin that is dry, itchy or peeling; brittle nails; hair loss; nausea and vomiting; diarrhea; fatigue; blurred vision; liver failure; hemorrhages.
Vitamin D
Vitamin D
Good to know: The body can make vitamin D on its own, provided it gets enough sunlight. By exposing face, hands and forearms for between 5 and 30 minutes two or three times per week, most people can manufacture all the vitamin D they need. Sunscreen blocks the type of rays needed to produce vitamin D.
Recommendations:

Ages newborn-12 months, 10 micrograms/day (equivalent to about 400 IU)

Ages 1-70, 15 micrograms/day (equivalent to about 600 IU)

Ages 71+, 20 micrograms/day (equivalent to about 800 IU)

(IU=International Unit)

Benefits: Increases absorption of calcium and phosphorus, which leads to stronger bones and teeth.
Food sources: Fish liver oils, fatty fish, fortified milk, cheese, egg yolk, and fortified cereals. Sunlight helps the body create its own vitamin D.
Day's supply in: 10–15 minutes of sunlight or a supplement
Watch out: Since vitamin D is absorbed in the small intestines, people with diseases that prevent proper absorption — such as liver disease, cystic fibrosis, Whipple's disease and sprue — may develop vitamin D deficiency.

Vitamin D production plateaus after a short amount of time in the sun. More exposure won't produce extra vitamin D, just skin damage.

Vitamin D from supplements should not exceed 50 micrograms or 2,000 IU per day, unless prescribed by your doctor.

Vitamin E
Vitamin E
Good to know: Also called alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol or tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active form.
Recommendations:

Ages 4-8, 7 milligrams (equivalent to about 11 IU)

Ages 9-13, 11 milligrams (equivalent to about 17 IU)

Ages 14+, 15 milligrams (equivalent to about 23 IU)

Benefits: Acts as an antioxidant, reducing risks of cancer and heart disease; contributes to good immunity.
Food sources: Vegetable oils, wheat germ, whole-grain products, nuts, egg yolks, green leafy vegetables.
Day's supply in: 2 ounces wheat germ (10 mg) PLUS 1 egg (0.5 mg) PLUS 1 ounce toasted almonds (4.5 mg)
Watch out: Very high doses of vitamin E supplements (greater than 400 mg per day) may be harmful.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K
Good to know: Also called menadione, menaquinone, or phylloquinone. Vitamin K is made in the body by normal intestinal bacteria, then absorbed for use.
Recommendations: Men ages 15-18, 70 micrograms/day

 

Men ages 19-24, 70 micrograms/day

Men ages 25+, 80 micrograms/day

Women ages 15-18, 55 micrograms/day

Women ages 19-24, 60 micrograms/day

Women ages 25+, 65 micrograms/day

Benefits: Makes proteins that allow the blood to clot.
Food sources: Liver, cabbage, broccoli, green leafy vegetables (such as spinach, kale, collard and turnip greens), milk, eggs, citrus fruits.
Day's supply in: 1 cup raw spinach (145 mcg), OR half cup raw broccoli (60 mcg) PLUS 1 egg (25 mcg)
Watch out: Too much vitamin K can interfere with anti-clotting medications such as warfarin (Coumadin).

 

20932,
vitamin,micrograms,liver,alpha-tocopherol,immunity,vitamins
20932
dmtContent
Last updated September 09, 2013


    Print Printer-friendly format    
   
.
.  
This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify.
.