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Harvard Commentaries
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Harvard Commentaries
Reviewed by the Faculty of Harvard Medical School


A Glossary of Vision Terms


September 15, 2011

Eyes
28067
Basics
A Glossary of Vision Terms
A Glossary of Vision Terms
htmGlossaryVision
Learn the terminology that doctors use when talking about eye problems.
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InteliHealth
2011-09-15
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InteliHealth
2014-09-15

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A Glossary of All Eye & Vision Conditions

 

Excerpted from Glossary of All Eye & Vision Conditions ©2006-2011 by American Optometric Association.

 

ACCOMMODATIVE DYSFUNCTION An eye-focusing problem that is related to aging changes in the lens of the eye."
AMBLYOPIA See Lazy Eye.
ASTIGMATISM A vision condition that causes blurred vision due either to the irregular shape of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye, or sometimes the curvature of the lens inside the eye.
BLEPHARITIS An inflammation of the eyelids and eyelashes causing red, irritated, itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff-like scales on eyelashes.
CATARACT A cloudy or opaque area in the normally clear lens of the eye.
CHALAZION A slowly developing lump that forms due to blockage and swelling of an oil gland in the eyelid.
COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY The inability to distinguish certain shades of colors or, in more severe cases, see colors at all.
COMPUTER VISION SYDROME A group of eye and vision-related problems that result from prolonged computer use.
CONJUNCTIVITIS An inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the thin transparent layer of tissue that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and covers the white part of the eye.
CONVERGENCE INSUFFICIENCY An eye coordination problem in which the eyes have a tendency to drift outward when reading or doing close work.
CORNEAL ABRASION A cut or scratch on the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye.
CROSSED EYES A condition in which both eyes do not look at the same place at the same time.
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY A condition occuring in persons with diabetes, which causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye.
DRY EYE A condition in which there are insufficient tears to lubricate and nourish the eye.
FARSIGHTEDNESS A vision condition in which distant objects are usually seen clearly, but close objects do not come into proper focus.
FLOATERS & SPOTS The shadowy images that are seen moving in your field of vision caused by particles floating in the fluid that fills the inside of the eye.
GLAUCOMA A group of disorders leading to progressive damage to the optic nerve, and is characterized by loss of nerve tissue resulting in loss of vision.
HORDEOLUM See Sty.
HYPEROPIA See Farsightedness.
KERATITIS An inflammation or infection of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye.
KERATOCONUS An eye disorder causing progressive thinning and bulging of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye.
LAZY EYE The loss or lack of development of clear vision in just one eye. It is not due to eye health problems and eyeglasses or contact lenses can't fully correct the reduced vision caused by lazy eye.
LEARNING-RELATED VISION PROBLEMS Vision disorders that interfere with reading and learning.
MACULAR DEGENERATION An eye disease affecting the macula, the center of the light-sensitive retina at the back of the eye, causing loss of central vision.
MIGRAINE WITH AURA See Ocular Migraine.
MYOPIA See Nearsightedness.
NEARSIGHTEDNESS A vision condition in which you can see close objects clearly, but objects farther away are blurred.
NYSTAGMUS A vision condition in which the eyes make repetitive, uncontrolled movements, often resulting in reduced vision.
OCULAR ALLERGIES The abnormal response of sensitive eyes to contact with allergens and other irritating substances.
OCULAR HYPERTENSION An increase in the pressure inside the eye above the range considered normal, without any detectable changes in vision or damage to the structures of the eye.
OCULAR MIGRAINE A type of severe headache accompanied by various visual symptoms.
PINQUECULA An abnormal growth of tissue on the conjuctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white of the eye.
PRESBYOPIA An age-related vision condition in which there is a gradual loss of the eye's ability to focus on near objects.
PTERYGIUM An abnormal growth of tissue on the conjuctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white of the eye, and the adjacent cornea, the clear front surface of the eye.
PTOSIS A drooping of the upper eyelid.
RETINAL DETACHMENT A tearing or separation of the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye, from the underlying tissue.
RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA A group of inherited disorders of the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye, which cause poor night vision and progressive loss of side vision.
RETINOBLASTOMA A rare type of eye cancer occuring in young children that develops in the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye.
STRABISMUS See Crossed Eyes.
STY An infection of an oil gland in the eyelid.
SUBCONJUNCTIVAL HEMORRHAGE An accumulation of blood underneath the conjunctiva, the clear membrane covering the white part of the eye.
UVEITIS An inflammation of one or more of the structures that make up the middle layer of the eye called the uvea.

 

 

 

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