| || |
Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Index Of Alternative Therapies And Modalities
When deciding to begin a complementary therapy or to see a complementary practitioner, first speak with your primary health care provider.
Before engaging in any complementary medical technique, you should be aware that many of these techniques have not been evaluated in scientific studies. Often, only limited information is available about their safety and effectiveness. Each state and each discipline has its own rules about whether practitioners are required to be professionally licensed. If you plan to visit a practitioner, it is recommended that you choose one who is licensed by a recognized national organization and who abides by the organization's standards. It is always best to speak with your primary health care provider before starting any new therapeutic technique.
Homeopathy is a system of medicine that is based on the Law of Similars, sometimes described as "like cures like." For example, a substance that causes vomiting when used full strength may be thought to prevent vomiting when used in a very low concentration. The German doctor Samuel Hahnemann developed the main theories of homeopathy in the early 1800s based on this idea and on related principles.
Homeopathic products may be made from plants such as aconite, arnica, dandelion or plantain; from minerals such as iron phosphate, arsenic oxide or sodium chloride; from the venom of poisonous snakes; from ink of the cuttlefish; or even from prescription drugs such as penicillin. These substances undergo a pharmacological process that homeopaths call "potentization," whereby a substance is sequentially diluted and vigorously shaken between each dilution. Preparations are often customized for patients, such that the chosen diluted constituent will be one in which overdose would yield symptoms similar to those associated with the condition to be treated.
For example, constituents may be mixed in alcohol to make a tincture. One drop of this tincture mixed with 99 drops of alcohol (ratio of 1:100) is then strongly shaken (this shaking process is known as succession). The final mixture is labeled as "1C." One drop of this 1C is then mixed with 100 drops of alcohol, and the process is repeated to make a 2C. By the time 3C is reached, the dilution is one part in 1 million. Small globules made from sugar are then saturated with the liquid dilution. These globules are a form of homeopathic medicine.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the manufacture and sale of homeopathic drugs differently from the way it regulates the manufacture and sale of prescription drugs. The Homeopathic Pharmacopeia of the United States was written into federal law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, making the manufacture and sale of homeopathic drugs legal in the United States. Most homeopathic drugs are available without a prescription. Many states regulate the practice of homeopathy. Usually, homeopathy can be practiced legally by anyone with a medical degree that allows them to practice medicine in that state. This includes doctors of medicine (M.D.s), doctors of osteopathy (D.O.s), naturopathic doctors and dentists, for example. State laws permit some doctors of chiropractic to administer homeopathic remedies. In California and Minnesota, any individual may prescribe homeopathic remedies, as long as fraud is not committed (for example, practitioners cannot label themselves as "doctor" or make false claims about their training and professional experience).
Manufacturers of homeopathic drugs are not required to submit new drug applications to the FDA. Packaging for homeopathic drugs should identify the manufacturer, state that the drug is homeopathic, and list the active ingredients and dose strength (dilution). Homeopathic remedies are exempt from U.S. alcohol regulations and may contain high concentrations of alcohol. Homeopathic remedies are sold primarily over the counter (without a required prescription) in the United States, and manufacturers cannot claim that these treatments cure specific diseases (for example, diabetes or cancer). Treatments for certain conditions, such as headache, premenstrual syndrome, or osteoarthritis pain, may be sold over the counter.
There is some evidence that homeopathic treatments are more effective than placebo in certain conditions, although the quality of many studies has been low. In areas of promise, further trials are needed before a firm conclusion, based on scientific data, can be made.
Anyone can use homeopathic drugs for self care of acute ailments. People who keep a homeopathic kit for emergencies are free under the laws of most states to use them in such situations.
Homeopathy attempts to stimulate the body to recover itself. For example, instead of trying to stop a cough by suppressing it, a homeopathic practitioner may give a remedy that could cause a cough in a healthy person. This is done according to the theory that "like cures like." It has been suggested that symptoms of illness represent defenses of the body, and that substances that cause similar symptoms may assist the body's healing process.
Scientists have studied various homeopathic approaches for the following health problems:
Acute childhood diarrhea
Several high-quality trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatment decreases the duration of acute diarrhea in childhood. Additional research, specifically larger, well-designed trials, is warranted to confirm these results. Children with persistent or severe diarrhea should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Acute radiodermatitis (skin disease from prolonged radiation exposure)
Small human trials suggest homeopathic remedies may be effective in this condition. However, large, well-designed studies are needed to clarify this.
Acute sprains of the ankle joint
There is currently not enough evidence to suggest a benefit of homeopathy in acute ankle sprains.
There is currently not enough evidence to evaluate the effect of homeopathy on adenoid vegetations and the need for surgery.
There are multiple studies of the use of homeopathy in individuals with allergies. Overall, results have been positive, although most studies have not been well designed enough to form a definitive conclusion. Better-quality research is necessary.
Early human studies suggest a potential adjunctive role for homeopathy in the relief of physical and laboratory measures of angina pectoris. More studies are needed.
Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints)
There is currently not enough evidence to support the use of homeopathy in this condition.
Anxiety (test anxiety, general)
Early studies have found conflicting results of the effect of homeopathy in anxiety. Additional high-quality studies are needed.
The scientific evidence for the use of homeopathy in children is inconclusive. There is early positive evidence in adult asthma, although more studies are necessary before a clear conclusion can be drawn.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
There are currently conflicting results of trials examining the effect of homeopathy on ADHD. Before conclusions may be drawn, more large-scale, well-designed studies must be done.
Homeopathic approaches have been evaluated for the reduction of bruises, for example, after surgery. The evidence in this area is limited, and further research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
There is currently not enough evidence to support the use of homeopathy in the treatment of burns.
A review of studies examining the effect of homeopathy in cancer did not find enough evidence to support this use. Additional high-quality studies are warranted.
Early human studies suggest a homeopathic remedy may be as effective as prescription drugs used for the treatment of mild cardiac insufficiency. More high-powered studies should be completed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
Chemotherapy-induced stomatitis (children)
Early human trials suggest gargling with a homeopathic remedy may reduce stomatitis caused by chemotherapy in children. Additional studies are needed.
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Preliminary research suggests potential benefits of a homeopathic approach to treat chronic fatigue. Additional research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
Chronic low back pain
There is currently not enough evidence to support the use of homeopathy in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Additional high-quality studies are warranted.
Dengue fever symptoms
Early small studies have not shown evidence of a benefit of homeopathy in reducing Dengue fever symptoms. Larger, high-quality studies are needed.
There is currently not enough evidence that homeopathy is beneficial in the treatment of depression. Large, well-designed studies are needed to clarify this relationship.
There is currently not enough evidence to support the use of homeopathy in painful urination.
Echinococcosis is a potentially fatal parasite infection. Human studies of the effect of homeopathy in this condition are lacking. Further research is warranted.
Epidemic neuropathy is a nerve disorder of the optic and/or peripheral nerves. Early human studies have not found evidence of a benefit of homeopathy in this condition.
Estrogen withdrawal in breast cancer survivors
There is currently not enough evidence to support the use of homeopathy in this condition.
Early studies suggest a potential benefit of homeopathy in the treatment of fertility disorders such as irregular or no menstrual periods. Additional research is needed.
Positive results have been reported from early studies of homeopathic approaches in the management of fibromyalgia symptoms. Most studies have not been well designed, however, and more research is needed to make a more definitive conclusion.
Early studies did not find an effect of homeopathy in gastrointestinal disorders such as dyspepsia. Additional high-quality studies are needed.
Many studies have been done to examine the effect of homeopathic treatments on headache prevention and treatment but have found conflicting results. Additional large, well-controlled studies are needed to clarify this relationship.
Early studies suggest homeopathy may play a role in the prevention of recurrence of genital herpes. However, additional well-designed studies are needed before recommendations may be made.
There are limited reports that the use of homeopathic approaches as an adjunct to conventional drug therapy for HIV may be beneficial. However, this research was done before the advent of current standard drug combinations, and the potential effects of adding to these current approaches are not known. Patients with HIV or AIDS should be under the care of a licensed medical doctor or nurse practitioner.
High blood pressure
Early studies suggest a potential benefit of homeopathy in the treatment of high blood pressure. Additional high-quality studies are needed before recommendations may be made.
Early studies in healthy volunteers suggest homeopathy may benefit immune function. Additional studies, including those testing homeopathy's effects in patients with low immunity, will help clarify this relationship.
Early studies suggest a potential benefit of homeopathy in the treatment or prevention of influenza symptoms. Additional well-controlled studies are needed.
Inhibitor of lactation/mastitis (breast inflammation)
There is currently not enough evidence to support the use of homeopathy in the treatment of breast inflammation and pain commonly associated with breast-feeding.
Early small studies suggest a potential benefit of a homeopathic remedy in this condition, which may consist of seizures and increased pressure on the brain. Larger, well-controlled studies are needed.
There is currently not enough evidence to suggest the use of homeopathic treatments in the induction of labor. Additional studies are needed.
Menopausal symptoms, hot flashes
There is conflicting evidence for the use of homeopathy as a treatment for menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, for example, in breast cancer survivors. Early studies showed improved well-being among women who received tailored homeopathic remedies. Additional studies are necessary before a clear conclusion can be drawn.
Migraine headache prevention
There is early evidence suggesting that homeopathy may be beneficial in the prevention of migraines. More studies are necessary before a clear conclusion can be drawn.
Mild traumatic brain injury
Early small studies suggest a potential benefit for homeopathy in mild traumatic brain injury. Additional well-designed studies are needed.
Early studies have found conflicting results of the effect of homeopathic remedies on mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed before firm conclusions may be reached.
There is evidence supporting the use of arnica for muscle soreness immediately after heavy physical exertion. Further research is needed before a recommendation can be made.
Homeopathic approaches have been evaluated for the reduction of pain, for example, in patients with arthritis, breast pain, or after dental or surgical procedures. The evidence in this area is preliminary, with some promising early results, although more research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
Homeopathic approaches have been used after surgical procedures for the reduction of pain, swelling, or bruising, as well as for postoperative ileus (reduced intestinal motility) and internal bleeding. Some studies have provided promising results, although the quality of available research is poor. Additional research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
The research in this area is not conclusive.
Pruritis (itching) among hemodialysis patients
Early studies show promising evidence of a topical homeopathic remedy for pruritis among hemodialysis patients, a common side effect. Large, well-controlled studies are needed to clarify this relationship.
Early studies of homeopathic treatments for osteoarthritis have included topical and injected (prolotherapy) methods. There is currently not enough evidence to support the use of homeopathy in the treatment of this condition.
Otitis media (ear infection)
There is early research in this area, specifically looking at the use of remedies tailored to individuals. Results have been positive overall, but better-quality research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be reached. Attention from a qualified health care professional should be sought for ear infections, particularly recurrent infections.
Studies to date have not found evidence of a significant effect of homeopathy on rheumatoid arthritis. Additional studies are needed.
Early evidence suggests a potential role for homeopathy in the prevention of sea sickness. However, additional studies are needed.
Sepsis (blood infection)
Early studies suggest a potential benefit of adjunctive therapy with homeopathy. Additional well-designed studies are needed.
There is currently not enough evidence to support the use of homeopathic remedies in shift lag.
Early studies suggest a potential role for homeopathy in the reduction of symptoms associated with sinus conditions. Additional large-scale trials are needed.
Homeopathy has been studied for several conditions, including contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Additional research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
Early evidence suggests a potential benefit of a topical homeopathic remedy in the treatment of tendinopathy, inflammation or tears in the tendons. Additional studies are needed.
Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (eye disease associated with Grave's disease)
Early studies suggest a potential benefit for the use of homeopathy in this condition. Large, well-designed studies are needed.
Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
Early studies failed to show a benefit of a homeopathic treatment for tinnitus.
Early human studies have found conflicting results of the effect of homeopathy in tonsillitis (symptoms and need for surgery). Additional studies are needed.
Upper respiratory tract symptoms
Early studies suggest homeopathic approaches may be effective in reducing symptoms and duration of upper respiratory tract conditions such as rhinitis (runny nose), sinusitis, or viral syndromes (for example, associated with influenza infection). There is no specific evidence that these approaches have antibacterial or antiviral activity. Better-quality research is needed to further develop the evidence in this area.
Studies have shown promising evidence for the treatment of vertigo with a homeopathic remedy among the elderly and other individuals. Duration, intensity, and number of vertigo episodes were favorably affected by treatment with Vertigoheelฎ.
There is currently not enough evidence to support the use of homeopathy in the treatment of various types of warts.
Weight reduction among fasting patients
Early studies have not found an effect of homeopathy in weight reduction among fasting patients.
Xerostomia (dry mouth)
Early studies suggest a potential role for homeopathy in disease- or drug-induced dry mouth. Measures included volume and immunoglobulin content of salivary flow.
Homeopathy has been suggested for many other uses, based on tradition or on scientific theories. However, these uses have not been thoroughly studied in humans, and there is limited scientific evidence about safety or effectiveness. Some of these suggested uses are for conditions that are potentially life-threatening. Consult with a health care provider before using homeopathy for any use.
Inflammatory bowel disease
Irritable bowel syndrome
| Labor pain|
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Yeast (Candida) infection
There is limited safety research of homeopathy. Because therapies are often individualized, it is difficult to make generalizations about overall safety.
In June, 2009, the FDA ordered the maker of Zicam Cold Remedy Nasal Spray, Gel and Swabs to stop marketing these products based on reports of loss of smell and taste related to their use. The products contain zinc gluconate and are labelled as homeopathic treatment for colds. The FDA issued a warning for people to stop using nasal Zicam immediately. Prior to the Zicam warning, homeopathy had gained a reputation of being safe, even though there were insufficient studies to make this general claim.
Homeopathy should not be used to treat life-threatening conditions, and it should not delay seeking established therapies for severe health conditions.
Allergic reactions are possible even if the allergens in the ingredients in the homeopathic treatment exist in low concentrations. Theoretically, drugs that alter the immune system, such as corticosteroids or antibiotics, may block the actions of homeopathic products, although this has not been scientifically demonstrated.
Rare cases of commercial products containing arsenic have been reported, attributed to poor manufacturing practices.
In the past, some homeopathic practitioners recommended against immunization of children. Most modern homeopathy practitioners explain the known benefits and potential risks of vaccines to their patients. Patients or parents with questions or concerns about vaccination should discuss these with a health care professional.
Homeopathy has been suggested for many conditions. Most studies have not been rigorously designed or reported, and further high-quality scientific research is merited. Safety and effectiveness are not well studied. Severe or chronic health conditions may require additional medical attention beyond homeopathy.
- Natural Standard: An organization that produces scientifically based reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) topics
- National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM): A division of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services dedicated to research
Selected Scientific Studies: Homeopathy
Natural Standard has reviewed currently available medical literature to prepare the professional monograph from which this version was created.
Some of the more recent studies are listed below:
- Ammerschlager H, Klein P, Weiser M, et al. [Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tractcomparison of homeopathic complex remedy with xylometazoline]. Forsch Komplmentarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2005;12(1):24-31.
- Bell IR, Lewis DA, Brooks AJ, et al. Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004;43(5):577-582.
- Brien S, Lewith G, Bryant T. Ultramolecular homeopathy has no observable clinical effects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proving trial of Bellandona 30C. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003;Nov, 56(5):117.
- Cavalcanti AM, Rocha LM, Carillo R Jr, et al. Effects of homeopathic treatment on pruritus of haemodialysis patients: a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Homeopathy 2003;Oct, 92(4):177-181.
- Chakraborti D, Mukherjee SC, Saha KC, et al. Arsenic toxicity from homeopathic treatment. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2003;41(7):963-967.
- Clover A, Ratsey D. Homeopathic treatment of hot flushes: a pilot study. Homeopathy 2002;Apr, 91(2):75-79.
- Coulter MK, Dean ME. Homeopathy for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or hyperkinetic disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;Oct 17, (4):CD005648.
- Ernst E. A randomised, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. J Psychosom Res 2004;57(5):503. Author reply, 504. Comment on: J Psychosom Res 2004;56(2):189-197.
- Frass M, Linkesch M, Banyai S, et al. Adjunctive homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an intensive care unit. Homeopathy 2005;94(2):75-80. Comment in: Homeopathy 2005;94(4):213-214.
- Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K, et al. Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Eur J Pediatr 2005;Dec, 164(12):758-767.
- Frei H, Thurneysen A. Homeopathy in acute otitis media in children: treatment effect or spontaneous resolution? Br Homeopath J 2001;Oct, 90(4):180-182.
- Frei H, Thurneysen A. Treatment for hyperactive children: homeopathy and methylphenidate compared in a family setting. Br Homeopath J 2001;Oct, 90(4):183-188.
- Frenkel M, Hermoni D. Effects of homeopathic intervention on medication consumption in atopic and allergic disorders. Altern Ther Health Med 2002;Jan-Feb, 8(1):76-79.
- Friese KH, Zabalotnyi DI. Homeopathy in acute rhinosinusitis: a double-blind, placebo controlled study shows the efficiency and tolerability of a homeopathic combination remedy . HNO 2007;55(4):271-277.
- Gerhar I, Wallis E. Individualized homeopathic therapy for male infertility. Homeopathy 2002;Jul, 91(3):133-144.
- Gyorik SA, Brutsche MH. Complementary and alternative medicine for bronchial asthma: is there new evidence? Curr Opin Pulm Med 2004;Jan, 10(1):37-43.
- Haila S, Koskinen A, Tenovuo J. Effects of homeopathic treatment on salivary flow rate and subjective symptoms in patients with oral dryness: a randomized trial. Homeopathy 2005;94(3):175-181.
- Hitzenberger G, Rehak PH. The effect of a homeopathic drug on the blood pressure of hypertensive patients: a randomised double-blind controlled parallel group comparative trial . Wien Med Wochenschr 2005;155(17-18):392-396.
- Itamura R, Hosoya R. Homeopathic treatment of Japanese patients with intractable atopic dermatitis. Homeopathy 2003;Apr, 92(2):108-114.
- Jacobs J, Herman P, Heron K, et al. Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11(1):21-27. Comment in: J Altern Complement Med 2005;11(1):1-3.
- Jacobs J, Jonas WB, Jimenez-Perez M, et al. Homeopathy for childhood diarrhea: combined results and metaanalysis from three randomized, controlled clinical trials. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;Mar, 22(3):229-234.
- Jacobs J, Williams AL, Girard C, et al. Homeopathy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot randomized-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11(5):799-806. Comment in: J Altern Complement Med 2006;12(2):104. Author reply, 104.
- Jones A. Homeopathic treatment for premenstrual symptoms. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2003;Jan, 29(1):25-28.
- Junker J, Oberwittler C, Jackson D, et al. Utilization and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with dystonia. Mov Disord 2004;Feb, 19(2):158-161.
- Kim LS, Riedlinger JE, Baldwin CM, et al. Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis using homeopathic preparation of common allergens in the southwest region of the US: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ann Pharmacother 2005;39(4):617-624. Epub 2005;Mar 1. Comment in: Ann Pharmacother 2005;39(4):736-738.
- Klopp R, Niemer W, Weiser M. Microcirculatory effects of a homeopathic preparation in patients with mild vertigo: an intravital microscopic study. Microvasc Res 2005;69(1-2):10-16. Comment in: Microvasc Res 2006;71(2):141.
- La Pine MP, Malcomson FN, Torrance JM, et al. Night shift: can a homeopathic remedy alleviate shift lag? Dimens Crit Care Nurs 2006;25(3):130-136.
- Malik IA, Gopalan S. Use of CAM results in delay in seeking medical advice for breast cancer. Eur J Epidemiol 2003;18(8):817-822.
- McCarney RW, Lasserson TJ, Linde K, et al. An overview of two Cochrane systematic reviews of complementary treatments for chronic asthma: acupuncture and homeopathy. Respir Med 2004;98(8):687-696.
- Milazzo S, Russell N, Ernst E. Efficacy of homeopathic therapy in cancer treatment. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(3):282-289.
- Oberbaum M, Galoyan N, Lerner-Geva L, et al. The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica montana and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Preliminary results. Complement Ther Med 2005;13(2):87-90.
- Oberbaum M, Schreiber R, Rosenthal C, et al. Homeopathic treatment in emergency medicine: a case series. Homeopathy 2003;Jan, 92(1):44-47.
- Passalacqua G, Bousquet PJ, Carlsen KH, et al. ARIA update: I. Systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine for rhinitis and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;117(5):1054-1062.
- Quattropani C, Ausfeld B, Straumann A, et al. Complementary alternative medicine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: use and attitudes. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003;Mar, 38(3):277-282.
- Raschka C, Trostel Y. Effect of a homeopathic arnica preparation (D4) on delayed onset muscle soreness: placebo-controlled crossover study. MMW Fortschr Med 2006;148(29-30):35. Comment in: Forsch Komplementarmed 2007;14(2):114-115.
- Robertson A, Suryanarayanan R, Banerjee A. Homeopathic Arnica montana for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomised placebo control trial. Homeopathy 2007;96(1):17-21.
- Salenko IuA, Barchukov VG, Sergeeva SA, et al. Pharmacoprophylaxis of sea-sickness syndrome with the help of homeopathic drug "Avia-more" Voen Med Zh 2006;327(1):55-59, 96.
- Schmiedel V, Klein P. A complex homeopathic preparation for the symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections associated with the common cold: an observational study. Explore (NY) 2006;2(2):109-114.
- Seeley BM, Denton AB, Ahn MS, et al. Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2006;8(1):54-59.
- Smith C. Homoeopathy for induction of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;4:CD003399.
- Smith SA, Baker AE, Williams JH. Effective treatment of seborrheic dermatitis using a low dose, oral homeopathic medication consisting of potassium bromide, sodium bromide, nickel sulfate, and sodium chloride in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Altern Med Rev 2002;Feb, 7(1):59-67.
- Steinsbekk A, Bentzen N, Fรธnnebร V, et al. Self treatment with one of three self selected, ultramolecular homeopathic medicines for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children: a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005;59(4):447-455.
- Steinsbekk A, Bentzen N, Fonnebo V, et al. Randomized controlled trials on treatment by homeopaths and self-treatment with homeopathic medicines: design and protocol. J Altern Med 2004;10(6):1027-1032.
- Steinsbekk A, Fรธnnebรธ V, Lewith G, et al. Homeopathic care for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children: a pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial comparing individualized homeopathic care and waiting-list controls. Complement Ther Med 2005;13(4):231-238.
- Stevinson C, Devaraj VS, Fountain-Barber A, et al. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery. J R Soc Med 2003;Feb, 96(2):60-65.
- Thompson EA, Montgomery A, Douglas D, et al. A pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of individualized homeopathy for symptoms of estrogen withdrawal in breast-cancer survivors. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11(1):13-20. Comment in: J Altern Complement Med 2005;11(1):1-3.
- Thompson EA. Homeopathy and the menopause. J Br Menopause Soc 2002;Dec, 8(4):151-154.
- Thompson EA, Reilly D. The homeopathic approach to symptom control in the cancer patient: a prospective observational study. Palliat Med 2002;May, 16(3):227-233.
- Thompson EA, Reilly D. The homeopathic approach to the treatment of symptoms of oestrogen withdrawal in breast cancer patients: a prospective observational study. Homeopathy 2003;Jul, 92(3):127-128.
- Tveiten D, Bruset S. Effect of arnica D30 in marathon runners: pooled results from two double-blind placebo controlled studies. Homeopathy 2003;Oct, 92(4):187-189.
- Ullman D. Controlled clinical trials evaluating the homeopathic treatment of people with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Altern Complement Med 2003;Feb, 9(1):133-141.
- Viksveen P. Antibiotics and the development of resistant microorganisms: can homeopahty be an alternative? Homeopathy 2003;Apr, 92(2):99-107.
- Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, et al. A randomized, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. J Psychosom Res 2004;56(2):189-197.
- Weber U, Luedtke R, Friese KH, et al. A non-randomised pilot study to compare complementary and conventional treatments of acute sinusitis. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2002;Apr, 9(2):99-104.
- White A, Slade P, Hunt C, et al. Individualized homeopathy as an adjunct in the treatment of childhood asthma: a randomised placebo controlled trial. Thorax 2003; Apr,(4):317-321.
- Whitmarsh TE. Homeopathy in multiple sclerosis. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 2003;Feb, 9(1):5-9.
- Wolf M, Tamaschke C, Mayer W, et al. [Efficacy of Arnica in varicose vein surgery: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study]. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2003;Oct, 10(5):242-247.
- Wustrow TP; Otovowen Study Group . Alternative versus conventional treatment strategy in uncomplicated acute otitis media in children: a prospective, open, controlled parallel-group comparison. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;42(2):110-119.
- Zabolotnyi DI, Kneis KC, Richardson A, et al. Efficacy of a complex homeopathic medication (Sinfrontal) in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Explore (NY) 2007;3(2):98-109.
Last updated June 18, 2009
homeopathic,homeopathy,acute,placebo,cancer,drug,health care,alcohol,asthma,breast cancer,chronic,upper respiratory tract,chronic fatigue,clinical,surgery,vertigo,allergic,anxiety,arsenic,cough,diarrhea,fibromyalgia,headache,inflammation,influenza