See arteriovenous fistula.
Plural of glomerulus.
Inflammation of the glomeruli. Most often, it is caused by an autoimmune disease, but it can also result from infection.
Scarring of the glomeruli. It may result from diabetes mellitus (diabetic glomerulosclerosis) or from deposits in parts of the glomerulus (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis). The most common signs of glomerulosclerosis are proteinuria and kidney failure.
A tiny set of looping blood vessels in the nephron where blood is filtered in the kidney.
An uncommon disease that usually includes bleeding from the lungs, coughing up of blood, and inflammation of the kidneys that can lead to kidney failure. This condition is an autoimmune disease.
A measure that tells how many red blood cells are present in a blood sample. Low hematocrit suggests anemia or massive blood loss.
Blood in the urine, which can be a sign of a kidney stone, glomerulonephritis, or other kidney problem.
hemolytic (HEE-moh-LIT-ik) uremic (yoo-REE-mik) syndrome (SIN-drome) (HUS):
A disease that affects the blood and blood vessels. It destroys red blood cells, cells that cause the blood to clot, and the lining of blood vessels. HUS is often caused by the Escherichia coli bacterium in contaminated food. People with HUS may develop acute renal failure.
A natural chemical produced in one part of the body and released into the blood to trigger or regulate particular functions of the body. The kidney releases three hormones: erythropoietin, renin, and an active form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium for bones.
Swelling of the top of the ureter, usually because something is blocking the urine from flowing into or out of the bladder.
Abnormally large amounts of calcium in the urine.
Unusually large amounts of oxalate in the urine, leading to kidney stones.
High blood pressure, which can be caused either by too much fluid in the blood vessels or by narrowing of the blood vessels.
IgA nephropathy (nef-RAHP-uh-thee):
A kidney disorder caused by deposits of the protein immunoglobulin A (IgA) inside the glomeruli (filters) within the kidney. The IgA protein damages the glomeruli, leading to blood and protein in the urine, to swelling in the hands and feet, and sometimes to kidney failure.
immune (im-YOON) system:
The body's system for protecting itself from viruses and bacteria or any "foreign" substances.
A drug given to suppress the natural responses of the body's immune system. Immunosuppressants are given to transplant patients to prevent organ rejection and to patients with autoimmune diseases like lupus.
interstitial (IN-ter-STISH-ul) nephritis (nef-RY-tis):
Inflammation of the kidney cells that are not part of the fluid-collecting units, a condition that can lead to acute renal failure or chronic renal failure.
intravenous (IN-truh-VEE-nus) pyelogram (PY-loh-gram):
An x-ray of the urinary tract. A dye is injected to make the kidney, ureters, and bladder visible on the x-ray and show any blockage in the urinary tract.