Acute often means urgent. An acute disease happens suddenly. It lasts a short time. Acute is the opposite of chronic, or long lasting.
acute renal (REE-nul) failure:
A condition in which the kidneys suddenly stop working. In most cases, kidneys can recover from almost complete loss of function.
acute tubular (TOO-byoo-lur) necrosis (neh-KRO-sis) (ATN):
A severe form of acute renal failure that develops in people with severe illnesses like infections or with low blood pressure. Patients may need dialysis. Kidney function often improves if the underlying disease is successfully treated.
More than normal amounts of a protein called albumin in the urine. Albuminuria may be a sign of kidney disease.
An organ or tissue transplant between two humans.
Alport syndrome (AL-port SIN-drome):
An inherited condition that results in kidney disease. It generally develops during early childhood and is more serious in boys than in girls. The condition can lead to end-stage renal disease, as well as hearing and vision problems. The common symptoms of this condition are chronic blood and protein in the urine.
A condition in which a protein-like material builds up in one or more organs. This material cannot be broken down and interferes with the normal function of that organ. In kidneys, amyloidosis can lead to proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, and renal failure.
analgesic(AN-ul-JEE-zik)-associated kidney disease:
Loss of kidney function that results from long-term use of analgesic (pain-relieving) medications. Analgesics that combine aspirin and acetaminophen are most dangerous to the kidneys.
The condition of having too few red blood cells. Healthy red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. If the blood is low on red blood cells, the body does not get enough oxygen. People with anemia may be tired and pale and may feel their heartbeat change. Anemia is common in people with chronic renal failure or those on dialysis. (See also erythropoietin.)
antidiuretic (AN-tee-DY-uh-RET-ik) hormone(ADH):
A natural body chemical that slows down the urine flow. Some children who wet their beds regularly may lack normal amounts of antidiuretic hormone.
A condition in which the person stops making urine.
arteriovenous (ar-TEER-ee-oh-VEE-nus) (AV) fistula (FIST-yoo-luh):
Surgical connection of an artery directly to a vein, usually in the forearm, created in patients who will need hemodialysis (see dialysis). The AV fistula causes the vein to grow thicker, allowing the repeated needle insertions required for hemodialysis.
autoimmune (AW-toh-ih-MYOON) disease:
Any disorder in which the body is attacked by its own immune system. Examples are Goodpasture syndrome and lupus erythematosus (see lupus nephritis).
A procedure in which a tiny piece of a body part, such as the kidney or bladder, is removed for examination under a microscope.
The balloon-shaped organ inside the pelvis that holds urine.
blood urea (yoo-REE-uh) nitrogen (NY-truh-jen) (BUN):
A waste product in the blood that comes from the breakdown of food protein. The kidneys filter blood to remove urea. As kidney function decreases, the BUN level increases.
A mineral that the body needs for strong bones and teeth. Calcium may form stones in the kidney.
Lasting a long time. Chronic diseases develop slowly. Chronic renal failure may develop over many years and lead to end-stage renal disease.
chronic renal (REE-nul) failure:
Slow and progressive loss of kidney function over several years, often resulting in end-stage renal disease. People with end-stage renal disease need dialysis or transplantation to replace the work of the kidneys.
A waste product from meat protein in the diet and from the muscles of the body. Creatinine is removed from blood by the kidneys; as kidney disease progresses, the level of creatinine in the blood increases.
A test that measures how efficiently the kidneys remove creatinine and other wastes from the blood. Low creatinine clearance indicates impaired kidney function.
An abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or a semisolid material. Cysts may form in kidneys or in other parts of the body.
An amino acid found in blood and urine. Amino acids are building blocks of protein. (See also cystine stone and cystinuria.)
A rare form of kidney stone consisting of the amino acid cystine.
A condition in which urine contains high levels of the amino acid cystine. If cystine does not dissolve in the urine, it can build up to form kidney stones.
Inflammation of the bladder, causing pain and a burning feeling in the pelvis or urethra.
A tool for examining the bladder. The procedure is called cystoscopy (sis-TAH-skuh-pee).